STATE NORMAL SCHOOL SALEM MASSACHUSETTS FIFTY-SEVENTH YEAR 1910-1911 w o O H o Eft Hi o w H <J H 03 State Normal School salem massachusetts FIFTY-SEVENTH YEAR 1910-1911 Approved by The State Board of Publication. State Board of Education. Thomas B. Fitzpatrick, A.M., Paul H. Hanus, LL.D., Levi L. Conant, Ph.D., Clinton Q. Richmond, A.B., Sarah Louise Arnold, A.M., Simeon B. Chase, Frederick P. Fish, A.B., Frederick W. Hamilton, D.D. Ella Lyman Cabot, . LL.D., TERM EXPIRES Brookline, 1911. Cambridge, 1911. Worcester, 1911. North Adams, . 1912. Newton Center, 1912. Fall River, 1912. Brookline, 1913. Tufts College, . 1913. Boston, . 1913. Officers of the Board. Frederick P. Fish, Chairman. Ella Lyman Cabot, Clerk. George H. Martin, Treasurer. Commissioner of Education. David Snedden, Ph.D. Deputy Commissioners. William Orr, A.M. Charles A Prosser, A.M. Agents. George H. Martin, A.M., Lit.D John T. Prince, Ph.D., . Julius E. Warren, . James W. MacDonald, A.M., Frederic Lynden Burnham, Charles R. Allen, . Lynn. West Newton. Worcester. Stoneham. Cambridge. Boston. Instructors. The Normal School. JOSEPH ASBURY PITMAN, Principal. Theory and practice of teaching. Harriet Laura Martin, . Librarian. Mathematics, Latin, English. Jessie Putnam Learoyd, . . . . . ... English. Charles Frederick Whitney, ..... Manual arts. Mary Alice Warren, . . Physical training, physiology, nature study, gardening. Gertrude Brown Goldsmith, A.B., .... Psychology, biology. Francis Boutelle Deane, . United States history, civics, general history, History of education. . Physical training, reading. Supervisor of practice teaching. Child study. Music. Literature, arithmetic. . Secretary. Helen Hood Rogers, Cassie Lucretia Paine, . Fred Willis Archibald, Harriet Emma Peet, Louise Caroline Wellman, Sumner Webster Cushing, M.A., . Geography, physiography, geography of commerce, economic geography. Arthur John Meredith, Ph.B., . Bookkeeping, commercial law, economics, history of commerce, arithmetic. Clara Ellen Townsend, Ph.B., . . . Shorthand, typewriting. Charles Elmer Doner, ....... Penmanship. Walter George Whitman, A.M., . . Physical science, physiography. May Heath Noyes, ..... Kindergarten methods. Training Department. The Practice School. Herbert Leslie Rand, Principal, Emma Eliza Campbell, . Maud Sarah Wheeler, . Mildred Beatrice Hopler, Bessie Jordan Welch, Mary Turner Ford, 1 Mary Elizabeth James, . Bertha Louisa Carpenter, Gertrude March, . May Heath Noyes, Gardening, carpentry. Grade eight. Cooking, sewing. Grade seven. Cooking, sewing. Grade six. Sewing. Grade five. Sewing. Grade four. Grade three. Grade two. Grade one. Kindergarten. 1 Substitute teacher, 1910-1911. The Bertram School. Eliza Clara Allen, .... Dorothy Genieve Stevens, Mildred May Moses, .... Alice Martha Wyman, .... Grades three and four. Grade two. Grade one. Kindergarten. The Farms School, Marblehead. Gertrude Ella Richardson, .... Ungraded. The necessary opportunity for observation and practice teach- ing for students in the commercial department is afforded in the Salem Commercial School and the Salem High School. Officers. Officers of the Salem Normal Association, 1910=1931. Mrs. Abbie Richards Hood, Beverly (Class LYIL), Miss Jessie Putnam Learotd, Danvers (Class LI.), Miss Mary A. Grant, Salem (Class LXX), . Miss Mart Elizabeth James. Salem (Class LXXXV. . Mrs. Emma R. Tenney. Manchester (Class XXXV. . Miss Anna M. Bates, Salem (Class X.), Miss Martha R. Orne. Lynn (Class XXXI.) , Mrs. Susan Farnham Thornd ike, Peabody (Class LXXIII. Miss Laura B. White, Boston (Class XXIX.), Miss Florence A. "Woodbury, Salem (Class LXIX. . President. Vice-President. First Secretary. Second Secretary. irer. I ► Directors. I Officers of the Senior Class. J. Elsie Macdonald,' Dorothy X. Prescott, G. Florence Swanson. Genorie P. Solomon. President. Vice-President. Secretary. Treasurer. Members of the School Council J. Asbury Pitman, M. Alice Warren. Walter G. Whitman. Maude W. Xelson, Mary L. Edmands, Eva L. McPhetres, Abbie E. Whalen. Dora C. Pedersen. Agnes E. O. Burns. Ida M. George, . Pernal S. Johnson, Winifred B. Watkins, John J. McGlew. Jr., 1 \ Faculty. J 1 \ Senior Class. lor Class. Calendar for 1911=1912. Spring Recess. From close of school on Saturday, February 25, 1911, to Tuesday, March 7, 1911, at 9.20 a.m. From close of school on Saturday, April 29, 1911, to Tuesday, May 9, 1911, at 9.20 a.m. Graduation Week. Monday, June 19, 1911, Class Day. Tuesday, June 20, 1911, at 10.30 a.m., graduation. Tuesday evening, reception of the graduating class. First Entrance Examinations. ' Thursday, June 22, 1911. 2 8.30-9.30 a.m. — Registration. (In the assembly hall.) 9.30-11.30 a.m. — Group I. 11.30 A.M.-12.30 p.m. — Group III. 2-4 p.m. — Group IV. Friday, June 23, 1911. 2 8.30-9.30 a.m. — Registration. (In the assembly hall.) 9.30-11.30 a.m. — Group II. 3 11.30 A.M.-12.30 p.m. — Group V. 9.30-11 a.m. — Group VI. (a). 11 a.m -12.30 p.m. — Group VI. (b and c). 1.30-2.30. p.m. — Group VI. (d). 2.30-3.30 p.m. — Group VI. (e). 3.30-4.30 p.m. — Group VI. (/). Second Entrance Examinations. 1 Tuesday and Wednesday, September 5 and 6, 1911. (Hours and order as above.) See page 67. Individual examinations in reading will be given throughout the day. 3 Candidates who have conflicts between Groups II. and VI. may arrange, in advance, for an examination in Group II. on Thursday. Beginning of School Year. Thursday, September 7, 1911, at 9.20 a.m. Thanksgiving Recess. From Wednesday, 12 m v preceding Thanksgiving Day, to the fol- lowing Tuesday, at 9.20 a.m. Christmas Recess. From close of school on Thursday, December 21, 1911, to Tuesday, January 2, 1912, at 9.20 a.m. Beginning of Second Half=year. Monday, January 29, 1912. Spring Recess. From close of school on Friday, February 23, 1912, to Monday, March 4, 1912, at 9.20 a.m. From close of school on Friday, April 26, 1912, to Monday, May G, 1912, at 9.20 a.m. Graduation. Tuesday, June 18, 1912, at- 10.30 a.m. First Entrance Examinations. Thursday and Friday, June 20 and 21, 1912. (Hours and order as above.) Second Entrance Examinations. Tuesday and Wednesday, September 10 and 11, 1912. (Hours and order as above.) Note. — The daily sessions of the school are from 9.20 to 12.30 and from 1.30 to 3 o'clock. The regular weekh' holiday of both the Normal and the practice schools is on Saturday. The telephone call of the school is "Salem, 375." The principal's residence is at 260 Lafayette Street, and his telephone call is 149-1. State Normal School, saleh, Massachusetts. AIMS AND PURPOSES. The aim of the school is distinctly professional. ^Normal schools are maintained by the State in order that the children in the public schools of the Commonwealth may have teachers of superior ability; therefore, no student may be admitted to or retained in the school, who does not give reasonable promise of developing into an efficient teacher. The school offers as thorough a course of academic instruction as time and the claims of professional training will permit. The subjects of the elementary curriculum are carefully reviewed with reference to methods of teaching. The professional training also includes the study of man from the standpoint of physiology and of psychology; the principles of education upon which all prac- tical teaching is founded; observation and practice in the appli- cation of these principles; and a practical study of children, under careful direction. In all the work of the school there is a constant and persistent effort to develop a true professional spirit, and to reveal to the student the wealth of opportunity which is open to the teacher, and the grandeur of a life of real service. ADMISSIONS General Requirements. Candidates for admission must, if young women, have reached the age of sixteen years, and if young men, the age of seventeen years, and they must declare their intention to teach, and to complete the course of study if possible. Their fitness for admission will be determined : — 1 See also pages 39, 40 and 67. 10 (1) By their standing in a physical examination. (2) By their moral character. (3) By their high school record. (4) (a) By certificate or (b) By written examination. (5) By- an oral examination. (1) Physical Examination". A certificate of good health, signed by a physician, must be presented by every candidate for admission to the school. (2) Moral Character. Candidates must present certificates of good moral character. In deciding whether they shall prepare themselves to become teachers, candidates should note that the vocation requires more than mere freedom from disqualifying defects; it demands vir- tues of a positive sort that shall make their impress for good upon those who are taught. (3) High School Eecord. It may be said, in general, that if the work of a good statutory high school is well done, candidates should have no difficulty in meeting the academic tests to which they may be subjected. They cannot be too earnestly urged, however, to avail themselves of the best high school facilities attainable in a four years' course, even though they should pursue studies to an extent not insisted on, or take subjects not prescribed, in the admission require- ments. The importance of a good record in the high school cannot be overestimated. Principals are requested to furnish the normal schools with complete records of the high school standing of all candidates. The stronger the evidence of character, scholarship and promise, of whatever kind, candidates bring, especially from schools of high reputation and from teachers of good judgment and fearless expression, the less difficulty they will meet in satisfying the examiners as to their fitness. 11 (4a) Admission by Certificate. At the regular meeting of the Board of Education held on May 2, 1907, the following votes were passed : — College graduates may be admitted to the State normal schools without examination, and may receive a diploma after satisfactorily completing a course of one year, requiring at least twenty recitation periods per week and including the advanced pedagogy and practice of the senior year. Candidates from high schools which are on the certificate list of the New England College Entrance Examination Board may be ad- mitted to any of the State normal schools without examination in any subject required for admission in which they have attained a standing of B, or 80 per cent., as certified by the principal of the school. Beginning with 1908, candidates from high schools not in the college certificate list may be admitted on similar conditions, if the high schools are approved for the purpose by the Board of Edu- cation. High schools desiring this approval should correspond with the State Commissioner of Education. French may be taken in the preliminary examinations. Blank forms for certificates may be obtained at the office of the State Board of Education, Boom 303, Ford Building, Bos- ton, or at the school. (4b) Written Examination. The examinations will embrace papers on the following groups of subjects, a single paper with a maximum time allowance of two hours to cover each of groups L, II. and IV., and a single paper with a maximum time allowance of one hour to cover each of groups III. and V. (five papers with a maximum time allow- ance of eight hours) : — I. Language. — (a) English, with its grammar and litera- ture, and (b) either Latin or French. II. Mathematics. — (a) Algebra and (b) plane geometry. III. United States History. 1 — The history and civil govern- ments of Massachusetts and the United States, with related 1 No substitute will be accepted. 12 geography and so much of English history as is directly con- tributory to a knowledge of United States history. IV. Science. — (a) 1 Physiology and hygiene, and (&) and (c) any two of the following, — physics, chemistry, physical geography and botany, provided one of the two selected is either physics or chemistry. V. Drawing and Music. — (a) Elementary mechanical and freehand drawing with any one of the topics, — form, color and arrangement, and (b) music. VI. Commercial Subjects. — (See page 40.) (5) Oral Examination. Each candidate will be required to read aloud in the presence of the examiner. lie will also be questioned orally either upon some of the foregoing subjects or upon other matters within his experience, in order that the examiners may gain some impres- sion about his personal characteristics and his use of language, as well as to give him an opportunity to furnish any evidences of qualification that might not otherwise become known to them. General Requirements in English for All Examinations. No candidates will be accepted whose written English is nota- bly deficient in clear and accurate expression, spelling, punctua- tion, idiom or division of paragraphs, or whose spoken English exhibits faults so serious as to make it inexpedient for the normal school to attempt their correction. The candidate's English, therefore, in all oral and written examinations ivill be subject to the requirements implied in the statement here made, and marked accordingly. Special Directions for Written Examinations. Group I. — Language. (a) English. — The subjects of the examination will be the same as those generally agreed upon by the colleges and high technical schools of New England. The list of books for study prescribed by the Commission of Colleges in New England for 1910-1915 is as follows : — Shakespeare's Macbeth; Milton's Minor Poems, or Tennyson's Gareth and Lynette, Lancelot and Elaine, and The Passing of 13 Arthur; Burke's Speech on Conciliation with America, or "Wash- ington's Farewell Address and Webster's First Bunker Hill Ora- tion; Macaulay's Life of Johnson, or Carlyie's Essay on Burns. The purpose of the examination is to discover (1) whether the student has acquired good habits of study, (2) whether he has formed any standards of literary judgment, (3) whether he has become discerning of literary merit, and (4) what acquaint- ance he has with standard English and American writers. The examination will take such a form that students who have followed other than the prescribed lines of reading may be able to satisfy the examiners on the above points. (b) Either Latin or French. — The translation at sight of simple prose or verse, with questions on the usual forms and ordinary constructions, and the writing of simple prose based in part or in full on the passage selected. Group II. — Mathematics. (a) The elements of algebra through affected quadratic equa- tions. (b) The elements of plane geometry. While there is no formal examination in arithmetic, the im- portance of a practical working acquaintance with its principles and processes cannot be too strongly emphasized. The candi- date's proficiency in this subject will be incidentally tested in its applications to other subjects. In geometry, the candidate's preparatory study should include independent solutions and demonstrations, — work that shall throw him upon his own resources; and his ability to do such work will be tested in the examination. An acquaintance with typical solid forms is also important, — enough, at least, to enable the candidate to name and define them and to recognize the relations borne to them by the lines, planes, angles and fig- ures of plane geometry. Group III. — United States History. Any school text-book on United States history will enable can- didates to meet this requirement, provided they study enough of geography to illumine the history, and make themselves familiar with the grander features of government in Massachusetts and 14 the United States. Collateral reading in United States history is strongly advised — also in English history so far as this his- tory hears conspicuously on that of the United States. A course in history and civics in the senior year in the high school is strongly recommended. Group IV. — Science. (a) Physiology and Hygiene. — The chief elementary facts of anatomy, the general functions of the various organs, the more obvious rules of health, and the more striking effects of alcoholic drinks, narcotics and stimulants upon those addicted to their use. A course of at least a half-year in the high school is advised. (b and c) Any Two of the Following Sciences, — Physics, Chemistry, Botany and Physical Geography, provided One of the Two is either Physics or Chemistry. — The chief elementary facts of the subjects selected, so far as they may be presented in the courses usually devoted to them in good high schools. It will be a distinct advantage to the candidate if his preparation includes a certain amount of individual laboratory work. A laboratory note-book, with the teacher's endorsement that it is a true record of the candidate's work, will be accepted as par- tial evidence of attainments in the science with which it deals. The original record should be so well kept as to make copying unnecessary. . Group V. — Drawing and Music. (a) Drawing. — Mechanical and free-hand drawing, ■ — enough to enable the candidate to draw a simple object, like a box or a pyramid or a cylinder, with plan and elevation to scale, and to make a free-hand sketch of the same in perspective. Also any one of the three topics, — form, color and arrangement. (b ) Music. — Such elementary facts as an instructor should know in teaching singing in the schools, — including major and minor keys, simple two, three, four and six part measures, the fractional divisions of the pulse or beat, chromatics, the right use of the foregoing elements in practice, and the translation into musical notation of simple melodies or time phrases sung or played. 15 Group VI. — Commercial Subjects. (See page 40.) Division of Examinations. Candidates may be admitted to a preliminary examination in one or more of the following groups a year in advance of their final examination : — I. 1 French. II. Mathematics. III. United States history. IV. Science. V. Drawing and music. Preliminary examinations can be taken in June only. Every candidate for a preliminary examination must present a certificate of preparation in the group or groups chosen, or in the subjects thereof. (See page 67.) Candidates for the final or complete examinations are ear- nestly advised to present themselves, as far as practicable, in June. Division of the final or complete examinations between June and September is permissible, but it is important both for the normal school and for the candidate that the work laid out for the September examinations, which so closely precede the opening of the school, shall be kept down to a minimum. Equivalents. Persons desiring to enter the school, whose courses of study have been equivalent to, but not identical with, the requirements for admission, are advised to correspond with the principal. Each case will be considered upon its merits, and in deciding the ques- tion of admission there will be a serious effort to give all the credit that is due. Experience in teaching, according to its amount and kind, is regarded as very valuable. 1 The group known as /. Language must be reserved for the final examinations, with the exception of French, as indicated above. It will doubtless be found generally ad- visable in practice that the group known as IV. Science should also be reserved. 16 Students from outside the State. Xon-residents of this Commonwealth who are able to satisfy the requirements for admission may be admitted as students on payment of fifty dollars per year, of which sum one-half is paya- ble at the beginning of the year, and the other half at the middle of the year. This applies to all courses. Special Students. College graduates, graduates of normal schools, and other per- sons of suitable attainments, including those who have had con- siderable experience in teaching, may, by arrangement with the principal, select a year's work from the regular program of the elementary course. If this work embraces not less than twenty recitation periods per week of prepared work, and includes the course in pedagogy and practice teaching, the student will receive a certificate for the same upon its satisfactory completion. Advanced students are also admitted to elective courses in the commercial department. Prompt and regular attendance is exacted of special students, as well as of those in the regular course. A definite statement of the applicant's purpose in desiring to enter the school is required, and those who do not intend to re- main at least a full year are requested not to apply. The design of the school does not include the admission of transient students, for the purpose of taking partial or special courses, except in cases which are really exceptional. Personal culture for its own sake is not the end for which the school receives its students. It exists and will be administered for the training and improvement of teachers, and all its facilities will be put to their utmost use for the advantage of teachers. Thus, during recent years, many teachers have been allowed to attend the exercises in selected departments, — so far as the privilege could be granted without injury to regular class work, — al- though their names have not appeared in the catalogue as stu- dents. In other cases it is sometimes found possible for those who have had experience in teaching, without a previous normal course, to enter the school and derive great benefit from a half 17 year's work. Some of our most earnest students have been of this class. But special students who do not intend to identify themselves with the school are not desired. Xeither is there room for those who do not have a serious purpose of study and self -improvement, but who wish rather to secure a brief nominal membership in a normal school, in order to obtain a better position. ELEMENTARY COURSE OF STUDY. The elementary course of study is designed primarily for those who aim to teach in the public schools below the high school grade. It comprises substantially the following subjects : — I. The study of the educational values of the following sub- jects, and of the principles and methods of teaching them : — (a) English, — reading, oral and written composition, gram- mar, rhetoric, English and American literature. (b) Mathematics, — arithmetic, algebra and plane geometry. 1 (c) History, — history and civil polity of the United States and of Massachusetts. (d) Science, — physics, chemistry, physiograplry, botany, zool- ogy, geography, physiology and hygiene, nature study, garden- ing. (e) Manual arts; vocal music; physical training; penmanship. II. (a) The study of man, body and mind, with reference to the principles of education ; the application of these principles in school organization, school government, and in the art of teach- ing ; the history of education ; the school laws of Massachusetts. (b) Observation and practice in teaching. The time required for the completion of this course depends entirely upon the student. It may not exceed two years for those of satisfactory preparation and superior ability ; for others, three years are needed to do the work properly. In many cases more than two years is insisted upon. Students who expect to teach in the upper grades of the grammar school will receive special prep- aration, and may elect a third year of advanced work, including observation and practice in these higher grades. A diploma is given when any course is satisfactorily completed. 1 Not required of students who axe preparing to teach in the first six grades. 18 CONDITIONS OF GRADUATION. The school does not accept the satisfactory accomplishment of the class work required as constituting a complete title to a diploma. While the fact is recognized that predictions regarding the success or failure of normal school students as teachers always involve a greater or less degree of uncertainty, it is nevertheless felt that the school owes its chief responsibility to the Common- wealth. Its duty is not fully discharged by the application of academic tests; certain personal qualities are so essential and their absence so fatal to success in teaching that the candidate for graduation must be judged in part from the standpoint of personality. It is the aim of the school — and this is insisted upon year by year with increasing strictness — not to bestow its diploma upon those who are likely to be unable in ordinary school work to use the English language with ease and correctness. The power of the student to teach, so far as that can be ascertained and judged, is of course an essential element in the problem, and those who are manifestly unable to do so will riot be allowed to graduate, whatever their academic proficiency may be. THE MODEL AND PRACTICE DEPARTMENT. Mr. Band, Principal; Miss Paine, Supervisor of Practice Teaching. In co-operation with the school committee of the city of Salem, the State normal school maintains in its building a complete sys- tem of model and practice schools, beginning with a kinder- garten, and fitting pupils for the local high school. The system also includes kindergarten and primary classes in the Bertram school building and a model ungraded school in Marblehead. The teachers are nominated by the principal of the normal school, and they are elected by the school committee. The as- signment of pupils is in the hands of the local authorities, so that the children do not constitute a picked company. The aim has been to secure in these schools as nearly as possible the actual conditions existing in public schools of a high class. It is an essential part of the plan upon which they are conducted that they be kept at a reasonable size. The schoolrooms them- selves are of ample dimensions, well lighted, thoroughly venti- - c :: - - 19 lated, furnished with approved furniture and other appliances for work, and provided with sanitary conveniences of the best kind. By the generosity and interest of many parents they are also provided with beautiful decorations. In planning the instruction in these schools the aim is to con- nect it as closely as possible with the work in the normal school, to the end that the methods of teaching here may exemplify the theory in which the normal school students are taught. In the model and practice school located in the normal school building, a large part of the instruction is either supervised or actually given by normal school instructors. The critic teacher devotes her entire time to supervising the normal school students in their relations to the practice schools. Her intimate acquaintance with the work of the schools in their various departments and her duties as a supervisor make it easy to guard in the most efficient manner the interests of the children. The regular teachers are selected solely by reason of their effi- ciency, and the facilities whose use is made possible by the con- nection between the practice schools and the normal school are put to their greatest service. Besides the regular observation and practice teaching, oppor- tunity is provided for those students who intend to teach in the first grade to observe in the kindergartens, and all members of the senior class are required to take a short course in the theory and methods of the kindergarten and its relations to the rest of the elementary school system. Arrangements have also been made for the seniors to gain a limited amount of experience in teaching in the upper grades of the Pickering grammar school in this city. ELEMENTARY COURSE. Junior Year. -n v i ) Periods Weeklv. _ . ( one-nali year each, ...... 4 Literature, ) Reading, ........... 1 Mathematics, 1 . 2 Fhysiography, 2 Physical science, ......... 2 Biology, ) . .« , . _ . _ \ one-half year each, 4 Psychology, J i Not required of those students who are preparing to teach in the first six grades. 20 History of United States, Manual arts, Music, .... Penmanship, Gymnastics, Senior Year English, Literature, Reading, . Arithmetic, Geography, Nature study, Pedagogy, . Child study, ) Tr . , , . , [12 weeks each, Kindergarten methods, J History of education, Latin (elective), Manual arts, Music, Penmanship, Gymnastics, Periods Weekly. 3 2 2 1 2 Periods Weekly. 2 2 2 3 2 2 2 x 2 1 1 2 2 1 2 AIM AND SCOPE OF THE COURSE OF STUDY. English Language. Miss Learoyd. The study of language is continued throughout the two years. As the students come from many different schools, their prep- aration is varied. It is therefore necessary during the first year to consider the essential qualities of language, in order to lay a uniform foundation for the intelligent discussion of the work in language in the lower grades. The subjects taken are considered chiefly from the standpoint of the teacher. Suggestions are given for planning and pre- senting subjects to a class, and opportunity is given for practice before the normal school class. Frequent oral and written criticisms are required. The students are expected gradually to assume the responsibility of the work in the classroom. 1 During the period spent in the practice schools. 21 As far as possible, the work in English is associated with that in other branches, and the student is made to feel the importance of a skilful use of language both in speech and in writing. Those who are especially deficient in knowledge or in practice are expected to give the subject extra attention. In the second year the teaching of English is considered. Good books on the subject are read by the class, for the purpose of gaining a high ideal and inspiration for the work. A course of study in general language work is suggested, to be used as a basis for class discussion and as a guide for individual work in planning different types of lessons. The best order of topics in grammar is considered, and exercises are planned and given. The observation of the work in the practice school serves to emphasize and illustrate points discussed. Literature. Miss Peet. That the work in literature may have direct bearing profes- sionally and some freshness of approach, the courses begin with a study of children's literature in the junior year, supplemented with work in general literature for point of view and personal culture. This is followed in the senior year by further investiga- tions in the field of general literature. The course in children's literature covers four periods a week during half the junior year. It embraces (1) studies in poems, hero tales, classic legends, realistic stories, studies in humor, and recreational and home reading for children; (2) brief studies in the sources of children's literature, — old world literature, Amer- ican poets and writers; and (3) aims and methods of teaching literature. "With studies in children's literature as a basis the students work first for power not only to see the beauty in literature but to interpret it to their classmates. With some accomplishment in this, and with the observation of work with children as a back- ground, the students work next for power ( 1 ) to get thought from others by questioning and other methods of arousing a discussion ; (2) to teach the meaning of an unfamiliar vocabulary; (3) to inspire good reading; and (4) to get such composition work as is a natural outgrowth of the study of a selection in literature. 22 This work for teaching power is followed by a survey of the fields of literature from which selections may be made with a study of the development of children through literature. In this work special attention is paid to the possibilities of the subject as a means for moral and aesthetic culture ; the relation of the school to a child's home and recreational reading; and, lastly, the influ- ence of the school festival and other entertainments. As the most economical approach in the senior year to the broad field which a general course in literature must cover, the work is classified by literary forms. The work covers studies in ballad literature, folk and modern; the evolution of the lyric from Elizabethan times to those of Tennyson, inclusive of the song, sonnet, ode and idyl ; and brief studies in the drama, novel, short stor}^ and the essay. In these studies, since one great interest in literature is the revelation of personality, attention is given to the lives and thoughts of the most famous masters. The course covers one period a week. The method of work is largely that of individual research work by the students with class reports and occasional talks and lectures. Reading. Miss Rogers. Junior Year. — The work for the greater part of this year aims to awaken interest in oral reading, and an appreciation of the student's present and future need of power in this direction. To this end oral reading is practised, and the study of phonetics begins incidentally with the effort to correct individual faults in pronunciation and articulation. The selections read are mainly those that may be used in the grades. Some are masterpieces of literature, others are taken from current magazines and news- papers, while others are simple stories and poems for very young children. The latter part of the year is devoted to the method of teaching reading which is in use in the practice school. Some knowledge of phonetics, and practice in story-telling and dramatization, are given in this connection. Senior Year. — This course deals with methods of teaching reading and literature in the grades, with special emphasis on the work of the first years. The work with methods of teaching 26 Teachers now in the service who are intending to enter the school to take a year's special work should make a thorough study of James's Briefer Course in Psychology, Halleck's Psy- chology and Psychic Culture, or some other book of equal scope. History of Education. Miss Deaxe. The course in history of education is included in the senior year. The plan of study follows two lines of development: (1) the analysis of the historical evolution of the educational system, tracing the great movements in their related order ; and ( 2 ) the study of the lives of leaders of educational progress, particularly those of the modern era. Throughout the course the inter-rela- tion of educational, religious and political conditions is made manifest as a basis for understanding national educational ideals and standards. In tracing the evolution of the present school system especial prominence is given to four topics, the purpose of education, the character of the curriculum, the degree of recognition of individualism, the development of the school as an institution. The course serves particularly to foster an appre- ciation of teaching as a profession. Child Study. Miss Paine. The course in child study is carried on with the seniors during their nine weeks of practice teaching. The aim of this course is to study the physical and psychological child as he is found in the average public school. The distinctive characteristics of the immature human being, as contrasted with the adult, are considered, emphasizing espe- cially those characteristics found in the average school child from five to fourteen years of age. An attempt is made to understand, somewhat, the effects of growth and development, and of nature and nurture, in order to interpret ordinary schoolroom pro- cedure. For this purpose the attention of the students is focused upon the children of the practice school with whom they are actually dealing. Observations are made of the special defects, the interests, habits and activities of the children of the various grades. These observations are supplemented by material de- 25 Psychology. Miss Goldsmith. The course in psychology extends throughout the junior year and makes the foundation for the work in pedagogy and child study of the senior year. The aim is to secure a clear under- standing of the fundamental laws which govern mental activity, as well as to develop a larger sympathy with human life as a whole and an appreciation of the conditions existing in imma- ture minds. Careful attention is given to the processes by means of which knowledge is acquired and elaborated, the sources of knowledge, both general and psychological, and the function and development of the mental faculties. The subjects of habit and reflex action, perception, conception, memory, imagination, imita- tion, instinct, judgment and reasoning, emotion and volition are made of special importance. Since the work is intended to be of practical value rather than of merely theoretical interest, illus- trations from the daily life of the student and from observation of child life, also applications to teaching, are demanded through- out the course. Pedagogy. Mr. Pitman. The course in pedagogy extends throughout the senior year. Its chief aim is to develop an understanding of the principles of education as derived from the study of psychology in the junior year, and of their application to school organization and govern- ment and to the art of teaching. The course comprises a study of the various educational agencies; of the educational values of the several subjects of instruction, and of their interrelations; of school organization and management; of the physical condi- tions of the school; and of the hygiene of the schoolroom. The work in the model schools is done in connection with this course, and the observations and experiences of the students are drawn upon extensively to illustrate the classroom discussions. A portion of the course is also devoted to a consideration of the historical development and the characteristic features of the Massachusetts school system, and a sufficient knowledge of the school laws is imparted to make the students familiar with the rights and duties of teachers. 24 The elements of civil government are considered from the standpoint of their actual operation rather than from that of theory, thus necessitating attention to current political events. Book study of the principles of government must be supple- mented by familiarity with concrete examples. Arithmetic. Miss Peet. There is an arithmetic of books and one of actual concrete situations in life. When the first is taught to the exclusion of the latter, the pupil has but a poor incentive for the study, and gains but little ability in the application of his knowledge. To avoid the narrowness of such a training the arithmetic is brought into contact with the activities of the student. It is based upon manual training, nature study, geography, and other interests of the school, home and community life. The work with the training class covers the senior }^ear. During the first half of the year the class reviews advanced arithmetic and develops methods of teaching it. Books are used for reference, but the endeavor here, as elsewhere, is to find the arithmetic of the actual office, shop and home. During the second half of the year the class discusses the principles underlying the number work of the pri- mary school and works out their application through teaching exercises. Mathematics. Miss Martin. The course includes study of form and study of number. It aims on the one hand to unify, and on the other to individualize and classify, the knowledge which students bring from their pre- vious study. Practical application of geometrical truth is made in field work and in the mensuration of the common plane figures and solids. The study of number is from the algebraic point of view. Processes are investigated and explained with reference to practical teaching. The quantity of work done is determined largely by the amount and quality of preparation and the indi- vidual needs of the students, and thus may naturally vary from year to year. 23 reading, begun in the junior year, is continued, and story-telling and dramatization in relation to children's literature are con- sidered. Middle Tear. — During this year students who devote three years to the elementary course have work in reading which aims to supplement the work of the junior year, thus giving a broader preparation for the practice work of the senior year. Elementary Latin. (Elective.) Miss Martin. The class is organized for the consideration of methods of teaching first-year Latin. It is open to special students, and to students of the second or third year whose standing warrants the undertaking of an additional subject. The general purpose of Latin study and the results to be secured in first-year work are considered, and the means of attaining these results discussed. Leading text-books for begin- ners are examined, and enough lessons developed to give an intel- ligent appreciation of the author's plan and method. As the work of the teacher of elementary Latin is largely of the nature of drill, discussion and illustration of modes of drill receive a large share of attention. The finest result in the teaching of a foreign language is the development of a feeling for that language. It is with this end in view that the teacher gives his first lesson, and the end is the constant inspiration of his method. United States History. Miss Deaxe. The study of United States history is included in the second year of the course. The work is planned with two general aims in view: (1) the review and establishment of the essential facts and principles of American and allied English history, treated from the academic standpoint; and (2) the consideration of the material in its adaptation to the elementary school. Effort is made to broaden the student's acquaintance with authoritative historical works and to aid him in the selection and handling of material. To this end, special presentations of topics requiring research have an important place in the plan of study. Xfl W H «! O w Q M M W H O w O 27 rived from the students' own personal experiences, and from their intimate knowledge of children found in other localities. An analysis of the conditions in the practice school that tend to promote, regulate or supplant the natural tendencies of the children is made, and a comparison with other schoolroom condi- tions within the experience of the students is constantly encour- aged, in the endeavor to discover the best conditions for bringing about the most desirable results. As can be seen, therefore, throughout the course the laws of psychology and the principles of pedagogy are constantly being analyzed out of and applied to ordinary schoolroom situations. Also, a close observation of all schoolroom procedure must be maintained in order to more intelligently appreciate its purpose in modifying the physical and psychological development of the average public school child. The two general text-books used — Eowe's The Physical Na- ture of the Child and Kirkpatrick's Fundamentals of Child Study — are supplemented by readings from various other authoritative writers. Reports of independent observations and criticisms are passed in weekly. For the students who are preparing to teach the two upper grades in the grammar schools it is proposed to give a more inten- sive study of the adolescent boy and girl than is possible or neces- sary for the students of the regular two years' course. Kindergarten Methods. Miss Noyes. This course does not train students for kindergarten teaching. It is given to the entire senior class, and aims to acquaint them with the methods and materials of the kindergarten, and its function as a foundation and preparation for the primary school. It gives them a practical understanding of the kindergarten, emphasis being placed upon its necessarily close relationship to and connection with the first grade. The importance of this formative period of the child's life, and Froebel's means for successfully developing the child through his own self-activity, are dwelt upon. 28 The following are the subjects considered : — Biography of Froebel, the founder of the kindergarten, followed by a study of his principles as contained in The Education of Man, and Mutter und Kose Lieder. Nature work as adapted to children of kindergarten age. Play as an educational factor. Songs and games. The gifts and occupations. Story telling. Constant opportunity is given the students for carefully super- vised observation and practice in the kindergartens as well as in the first grades of the practice school, so that theory may at once be made practical. Biological Science. Miss Goldsmith. This course extends throughout the junior year and is planned to give a basis for the comprehensive understanding of human physiology and nature study, both of which courses follow in the senior year. The aim is to lead the student to as clear an under- standing as possible in the time allowed of the gradual evolution and increasing complexity of plant and animal life, and to appre- ciate such great principles as heredity, adaptation to environ- ment, the struggle for existence and protection. Types of plants and animals (e.g., the dandelion, corn, maple tree, starfish, crab, fish) form the basis for class discussion, laboratory work, recita- tion and economic problems. The students also work out the problem of adapting these forms to work with the children. As much field work is done as time permits, and the collection at the Peabody Academy of Science affords an unusual opportunity for the study of typical animal forms. Through this we hope to arouse in the students a love and appreciation of all living things, a desire for a more intimate knowledge of their surroundings, and a reverently questioning attitude which shall lead to keen obser- vation and careful thinking. 29 Physical Science. The aims of the work in physical science are : to stimulate and foster interest in the science of common things; to provide a fund of useful knowledge about everyday science; and to develop the power of accurate observation, clear thinking and correct expression which are essential to direct others in the study of science. The class-room work includes demonstrations, informal lectures, reports of special topics and discussion. A large part of the class-room time is used by the students in presenting special topics before the class. About one-third of the time is allotted to individual laboratory work. The object of this work is to give the student sufficient skill in manipulation of apparatus to be able to demonstrate successfully before a class, and to give more intimate knowledge of the substances, processes and principles which are discussed in the class-room. Ample laboratory facilities are provided for independent work by the students. The following are the courses offered in physical science : — A. Physics. — For students who enter without satisfactory preparation in physics. First half year. Twice a week. A general introduction to physical science, covering the funda- mental principles. B. 'Chemistry, — ■ For students who enter without satis- factory preparation in chemistry. Second half year. Twice a week. A brief elementary course in chemistry, providing a foun- dation for the chemical work of the course in applied physical science. (1) Applied Physical Science. — Required of students of both the two-} r ear course and the three-year course. One year. Two hours a week. The student is required to have an elementary knowledge of physics and chemistry before entering this course. This course includes many subjects which are important because they are closely related to every-day life. Consideration is given to science questions of the home, public utilities, manufactures, trades and arts. The course aims to give the student a broad outlook over the field of physical science and an insight into ways in which science is useful to man. Excursions are planned to 30 show the applications of physics and chemistry in commer- cial use. (2) Methods. — Eequired of students of the three-year course. One year. Three times a week. The aim of the course is to prepare the student to teach physical science in the gram- mar grades. Practice is given in devising lessons. Model les- sons are presented and discussed in class. Some observation of science teaching in grammar grades is afforded. To increase skill in demonstrating with apparatus, some work in the lab- oratory is offered. The course covers the subject-matter of physics and chemistry which is appropriate to the grammar school pupil, and in addition gives to the normal school student a broader treatment of the subject-matter than will be required for use in teaching. Physiography. Mr. Cushixg — Mr. Whitman. The course in physiography is made to include enough of astronomy for the student to gain a clear notion of the relation of the earth to the other members of the solar system and the universe; of mineralogy, to interpret the physiographic history of parts of the earth from the study of bed rocks; of historical geology, to appreciate that the earth, with its animal and vege- table life, is an evolving organism, and that the present condi- tions show one stage of that evolution ; of physical geography, to understand the typical processes affecting the earth's surface and the resulting land forms. The object of the course, other than general culture, is to build up the background for the earth sciences that are taught in the elementary schools. It is made preparatory to the course in geography that follows the next year. Field trips and laboratory work take an important part in this work. The immediate surroundings offer diversified ma- terial for field work. The school is well equipped with a large astronomical telescope, with individual and exhibition rock and mineral specimens, and a museum of selected fossils. 31 Geography. Mr. Cushing. In this course the fundamental principles of the science are evolved from the study of the home locality, so that the under- standing of the mutual relations of man and his environment becomes observational knowledge. The method of instruction is such as to tend to develop the reasoning power of the student as the facts of geography are studied. Much time is spent in interpreting the materials found in text- books on the subject in elementary schools, in map reading, in the use of diagrams, models, pictures, specimens and the other geographic helps. An intensive study of the pedagogy of geography occupies a period near the end of the course, after the students have gained abundant illustrative material and experience in the previous work of the class and in the practice school. The place of geog- raphy in the school curriculum is justified and the part it plays in reaching the ends of education is defined. A graded course of study is worked out on this basis. The school possesses special advantages for geographic study. Salem has diversified land forms which determine varied indus- trial activities. An excellent harbor and near by rivers show well their influence over human activities. A geography garden is de- veloped in the spring by the normal and practice school pupils. The department has one of the best geography museums in the State. Nature Study. Miss Warren. The aim in this course is to give the student the training needed to teach nature study and related subjects in the elemen- tary schools. From the study of biological and physical science in the junior year many important facts have been learned of which practical use can be made in adapting the work. In developing a course for the six lower grades, the student should understand the child's point of view and should keep clearly in mind the aim of the work, viz., that he is to encourage an increasing spirit of inquiry, a closer observation, a greater 32 familiarity with the habits and uses of plants and animals, a desire to know how to care for them, and an appreciation of the inter-relation of all nature. In the fall the lower grade work begins with the care and study of some animal pet. Talks on primitive man, his shelter, food and clothing, and his dependence upon the world about him, lead to an under- standing of the means man is using to comprehend and subdue nature's forces that he may utilize them for the good of man- kind. The recognition of trees and lessons on their use and care afford a background for discussions on forestry in the higher grades. The school garden not only furnishes material for the study of plant and animal life, but is also considered from the aesthetic and economic standpoint. In the spring a study of soils, of the couditions necessary for germination and experiments with seeds planted in shallow boxes filled with various kinds of soil, is followed with practice in thinning, transplanting, weeding, and by the care of growing plants. Correlation with drawing and arithmetic is made whenever it is practicable. Those students who are to specialize for upper grade work should be able to train the child so that he may have a broader knowledge of the subject-matter, a growing appreciation of eco- nomic questions and of the inviolability of nature's laws, greater independence in observation and inference and clearer concep- tions of exact statements. The application of the principles of physical science, which are too difficult to be understood in the lower grades, should occupy an important place. The School Gardens. Miss Warren — Mr. Rand. Three gardens are conducted by the school; one of them. which occupies a part of the school grounds, is worked on the individual basis. This offers to each student an opportunity not only to plant a small plot of her own and care for it, but also to supervise the work of children from the practice school. """JPP 2 H Q = H H P O © — < 33 Thus they learn to make practical the ideas they have gained concerning plant life, and will be able to establish gardens in schools where they may teach. Another garden, comprising half an acre, located on West Avenue, a short distance from the school, is worked on the com- munity basis, and is planted entirely to vegetables, which are sold to families living in the vicinity of the school and to the markets. This garden is planted, cared for and the products of it harvested by boys of the seventh and eighth grades. "When the garden is planted the boys are in the seventh grade; when the products are gathered and sold they are in the eighth grade. The boys are given a share in the profits, apportioned among them according to efforts they have made in working the garden. The third garden is conducted by the students in con- nection with their course in geography, and is devoted to grains and grasses. The work of the individual garden is under the supervision of Miss Warren and the teachers of the practice school, the com- munity garden is supervised by Mr. Eand, while the geograph- ical garden is conducted by the students under the direction of Mr. Cushing. The work in the garden is a means toward an end. The teachers have an opportunity to make nature study practical, and to encourage the children to have gardens of their own, in order that they may have interests at home. They promote a spirit of co-operation and helpfulness among the children, loy- alty to the school in making the whole garden attractive, and generosity in contributing a portion of their produce to hospi- tals. The garden furnishes material for work in the schoolroom. In arithmetic, there are practical problems of expenditure of money for material and labor and of income from products raised, and measurements to be made in planning and laying out the garden. In language, subjects for composition and dis- cussion are presented in the preparation for the outdoor work, and as a result of experience gained in the garden. In manual training, there are problems to work out, such as tools, frames to support vines, cold frames, etc. Knowledge of moisture, soils, relation of plants and animals, food products, forms a 34 basis for practical geography. There are plans of the garden to be drawn, vegetables in different stages and flowers for the study of form and color, flowers to be arranged artistically in vases, effective arrangement of flowers in the garden to be con- sidered. By thus grouping much of the indoor work in the spring about the garden, the teacher makes the garden a natural center from which other lines of work radiate. Physiology and Hygiene. Miss Warren. The purpose of the study of physiology and hygiene is two- fold ; to aid the student in forming right habits of living and to furnish accurate knowledge of principles and facts to be taught to children. Emphasis is placed upon the knowledge of the danger to the child arising from adenoid growths, enlarged tonsils, neglected colds, decaying teeth, defective eyesight, bad ventilation, the use of public drinking cups and towels, malnutrition and nervous strain. Students who are fitting themselves to work in the six lower grades of the public schools should prepare teaching exercises adapted to those grades on the needs of daily life; as eating, drinking, breathing, sleeping, playing, working, resting, bathing and clothing. Personal hygiene, school and home sanitation, and emergency lessons receive due consideration. Those students who are to instruct the pupils of the upper grades should understand the fundamental importance of vital functions and the harmon} 7 between structure and function. Work with the compound microscope and discussions of the re- lation of the cells to the various physiological processes result in clearer ideas of the body as a physical organism. Knowledge of the nutritive, economic and physiological value of foods, of the action and effect of condiments, stimulants and narcotics, is important. The characteristics of bacteria, their presence in milk, food and water, and their relation to disease, are con- sidered. Special stress is laid upon personal hygiene and public sanitation. s o o Q H H 35 Physical Training. Miss Warren — Miss Eogers. In the work of physical training the Swedish system of gym- nastics is employed. Physical exercise has a two-fold purpose; it invigorates the body and it relieves mental tension. The floor work includes all the fundamental positions of the body, as bending, twisting, jumping, running and marching. It is supplemented by the use of apparatus, which gives added in- terest and enthusiasm to the work, and a greater opportunity for muscular development. The gymnasium is provided with stall bars and benches, double booms, jumping standards, verti- cal ropes, a Swedish ladder and a horse. The work is varied occasionally by gymnastic games, which are calculated to de- velop self-control, precision, dexterity and concerted action. Rhythmic movement is a strong feature of the work. During the senior year opportunities are given the students for con- ducting gymnastic exercises as practice in teaching. Association in the gymnasium promotes a social spirit, which serves as a bond of union, and tends to give a healthy impetus to the fulfilling of the requirements in other departments of study. The aim of the work is not only to help the student to gain a more intelligent mastery of the body, but also to train the mental and moral faculties. The vitality and usefulness of the human body are also fur- thered by correct carriage, proper breathing and regular bodily exercise. Whatever, therefore, conduces to develop the chest, straighten the spine, purify the blood and distribute it to the various organs, and to improve the personal appearance gen- erally, is a matter of vital importance. We cannot too strongly emphasize the fact that a sound mind in a sound body is a prime requisite for success and effectiveness in any department of life. Manual Arts, Mr. Whitxey. The manual arts are among the most important and definite processes in education, the outward visible expression of the inner thought, conception or experience. They bring to the in- dividual new and varied experiences and at the same time stim- 36 ulate thought; the mind broadens, and the individual expresses himself spontaneously. The teacher is frequently asked, "What are the aims or the results to be obtained through the study of the manual arts ? ;; Some of the answers are found in the following statements : — It gives command of the one universal language. It cultivates accuracy of observation. It develops appreciation of the beautiful. It gives power to express beauty. It develops skill of hand and eye. It encourages originality. It promotes appreciation of excellence in manufactured ar- ticles. It increases the value of our industrial products. It helps to establish good habits of thought and action. It awakens an interest in the mind of the child when other studies fail. It is indispensable in many other studies. It gives to many a. means of livelihood. The manual arts is a broad term, and includes the topics found in the following outline : — Eepresentation : line, mass, color. Composition: line, area, color. Construction : material, use of tools, motif. Representation. — This topic covers such work as nature drawing, object drawing in all its phases, freehand paper cut- ting, modeling and illustrative sketching, and involves the use of pencil, pen and ink, crayon, chalk, water colors, etc., as the mediums for expression. Composition. — Composition is a term used in its broad sense, and bears upon original arrangements and design. It also in- cludes the theory of color and the application of color har- monies. Here again a choice of the most appropriate medium must be considered. Construction. — The work in construction comprises both the above-mentioned subjects and their application in the making of things. Objects for various purposes are discussed, their fitness is considered, freehand sketches are made, as well as the neces- sary mechanical drawings, compositions in line, area and color o CO X CO W o < PQ e i— * Q n K Q <J O a © 37 are planned, and the result of these problems is the finished product. Such projects involve many other studies, for the pupil must know something of the material he is using, its source and manufacture; he must understand something of the type of wood, metal, leather, fabric, reed, raffia, cardboard and other material, and of the tools and appliances necessary in the handling of such. The brief outline suggested above includes the work of both the normal and the practice schools, and is varied to meet the demands of the different grades. It is the constant effort of the department to make itself helpful in meeting the problems of school life, and to comple- ment the work of the other departments. Each year there is given a course of lessons in free blackboard sketching, which is a very important accomplishment for the grade teacher. Such work awakens interest, holds the attention, and cultivates a desire on the part of the child to express himself in the same free and spontaneous manner. Occasional lectures are given by the State supervisor of draw- ing and others upon important subjects influencing the manual arts in the public schools, and upon more general topics in art. These lectures have a decided influence upon the pupils, and create an interest in many lines of art study and industrial train- ing. To these is added a short course on the history of art, deal- ing with the various schools of architecture, sculpture and painting from Egypt to the Eenaissance. When possible, visits to the Museum of Fine Arts are made for study and review. Each student is required to observe the work of the super- visor and of the teachers in the grades of the practice school, to present illustrated reports on these observations, and to give lessons in this work under supervision and criticism. Outlines of work for the grades in the practice school are arranged from month to month, and the normal school pupils observe their ap- plication in the work with children. Students who complete the course should be able to plan and arrange adequate outlines of work for use in their own teaching, or to follow intelligently the outline of a supervisor. 38 Music. Mr. Archibald. The work in this department is designed to enable students to teach such principles of music as will apply to instruction in this subject in the several grades of the public schools. Voice culture, song interpretation, ear training and sight reading, introducing the various problems of time and tune, are taught. The exemplification of these subjects is observed in the model schools, and practice in these lines is afforded the student under the guidance of the regular grade teachers. One period weekly is given to general exercises in music, when the following subjects are considered : — (a) The principles of conducting, as applied to chorus sing- ing and general school work; also practice in the same. (b) Musical appreciation through listening to good music performed by the students and by professional artists, and also through the use of a piano player. (c) Chorus singing in preparation for the graduation exer- cises. . A good library of pianola rolls is at the disposal of the students, and much laboratory work in music is accomplished. A glee club, selected by competition, rehearses weekly, sings at various entertainments of the school, and gives an annual concert. An orchestra of stringed instruments is also one of the musical activities of the school. Tickets for the concerts of the Boston Symphony Orchestra and the Boston Opera Company are obtained for students upon application. Penmanship. Mr. Doner. Penmanship is taught during both the junior and the senior years. One period each week is devoted to practice under the personal direction of the supervisor, for the purpose of devel- oping a plain, practical style of writing. Students are required to practice at least fifteen minutes a day, and to submit their practice work to the supervisor for inspection, criticism and gradation. 39 In the junior year the object of the work is to lay a thorough foundation in position, penholding and movement; also to drill in word, figure, sentence and paragraph writing. In the senior year the object of the work is to improve the general quality of the writing and develop speed, so that the students will be able to write automatically a smooth, plain, practical hand. Students will be able to write well if they conscientiously try to apply the movement in all their written work. Since writing is essentially a co-ordinated movement, it has to be developed through patient and persistent practice. The seniors are also given blackboard practice, practice in counting, and in teaching lessons before their own classes. The seniors have ample oppor- tunity to observe the teaching done by the supervisor and the regular teachers in the practice school. During the senior year the supervisor outlines a scheme for each grade, so that the students will have a knowledge of the theory of teaching the subject of penmanship in all the grades in the public school. A teacher cannot teach what she does not know. Therefore, the purpose in this department is to give the students a practical working knowledge of the subject of penmanship, so that they will be able to write well themselves and in turn teach others to write well. Theory and practice go hand in hand, but the students are given so much of the practical side that the theory becomes a reality. COMMERCIAL DEPARTMENT. Entrance Requirements. The requirements for admission to the prescribed course of three years will be the same as for students who apply for ad- mission to the elementary course, except that graduates of commercial courses in approved high schools will also be eligible. The latter may choose, from the subjects classified below under Group VI., substitutes for those required under Groups II.-V. (see page 13). Certificates will be accepted in lieu of examina- tion in those subjects in which candidates have attained a rank of not less than B, or eighty per cent., and examinations will be given in other subjects. Students who complete this course will receive special diplomas. 40 A condensed course of one or two years will be offered to graduates of colleges, normal schools and private commercial schools, and to teachers of experience. Appropriate certificates will be awarded to special students who complete approved courses of study. Group VI. — Commercial Subjects. (a) Bookkeeping. — Ability to open and close a set of books by single or double entry, to change from single to double entry, to explain and illustrate the use of the different books. (b and c) Shorthand and Typewriting. — Mastery of the principles of Pitmanic shorthand and their application, and of the word-signs and contractions of the particular system studied. Transcription on the typewriter of dictated material, to test accuracy in reading shorthand notes. Much importance is at- tached to correct spelling, capitalizing and paragraphing, and to skill in arranging typewritten material on a page. A similar examination in Gregg shorthand will be given for those who wish to offer this instead of a Pitmanic system. (d) Commercial Arithmetic. — Computations relating to ex- tending and footing bills; percentage, including interest, dis- count, partial payments, commission and brokerage; partnership settlements; etc. (e) Commercial Law. — Knowledge of such phases of law as contracts, negotiable paper, agency bailments, partnership, cor- porations and insurance. Ability to draw up approved legal forms such as powers-of-attorneys, checks, and notes. (/) Commercial Geography. — A knowledge of principles that control the production, distribution and consumption of com- modities, gained from a study of the local environment and a standard text, will fit the candidate for this examination. The Course of Study. Junior Year. Hours per Week. English, 2 Shorthand, . 4 Typewriting, 5 General history, 2 Physiography, 2 41 Commercial arithmetic. Elementary bookkeeping. Penmanship, } 2 Physiology. Gymnastics, M is s half vear each. _ half vear each. Middle Year. English. ....... Penmanship. Commercial correspondence. Shorthand. Typewriting'. American history and er Industrial physics. Industrial chemistry. General geography. . ^ Commercial geography. ( Bookkeeping, Psychology. Gymnastics. Music. .... half vear each. half vear each. B n'ior Year. Literature, ...... Shorthand. ..... Typewriting. ..... History of commerce. Commercial law. ) . _. ^ V hall vear each. Economics. . ^ Industrial geography. Penmanship. ..... Advanced bookkeeping. Pedagogy (Observation and practice teaching Gymnastics. ..... Music. ...... weeks. _. 42 English. Miss Leaeoyd. The course is planned for two years. It is intended to give the students a thorough knowledge of the language as far as it may be obtained by consulting reference books on the sub- ject and b}~ reading literature, and to offer systematic training in expression in speech and writing. At first, the aim will be to ascertain the needs of the individual, and to establish habits of accuracy and of systematic methods of work. Exercises in spelling, definition, dictation, taking notes from dictation and letter writing, including the phraseology of business English, will receive attention in proportion to the needs of the class. A detailed study of words, the sentence, the paragraph and the whole composition will form the basis of most of the work of this year. Frequent opportunity will be afforded to students to write short daily themes and occasional long themes, to plan talks efficiently and to gain ease in speaking before the class. During the second year an effort will be made to arouse the students to an interest in the best works of modern literature. The reading and discussion will be concerned chiefly with sub- jects involving description and explanation. Exercises for culti- vating accuracy and fluency will be continued. Themes will include the results of extended study on some topic connected with trade and -industry; review and criticism of commercial text-books. There will be an opportunity for the students to test their power of presenting subjects clearly to the class and of directing the work of the class room, and to acquire skill in careful and just criticism. It is hoped that the result of the work of the two years will be to give confidence and power in clear and easy expression both in speech and writing. Commercial Correspondence. Miss Learoyd. Two hours a week for a half year are devoted to the study of forms of business correspondence and to practice in the writing of business letters. It is desirable to establish high aims in the form of the business letter, and clearness and ease in expression, 43 and at the same time to make the subject practical. On the professional side the importance of the study to high school classes is considered and methods and text-books are discussed. Some of the clerical work of the school furnishes additional drill. Literature. The course in English literature is mainly cultural. It aims to give an appreciation of literature in an intimate relation with our modern social and economic point of view; and to develop, as far as a single course can hope to, the breadth of view essential for every teacher. In the literature covered special emphasis is laid upon the evolution of the periodical and the essay. The first covers the ground from the Spectator to the Century and the Atlantic; and the second includes such essayists as Lamb, Macauley, Carlyle, Emerson, Arnold, Warner, and Stevenson. Further than the work on periodicals and the essay, the course consists of a brief study of the novel and the short story and a more extensive study of the poets of the nineteenth century, — Tennyson, Browning, Arnold, Morris, Clough and Swinburne. History. Miss Deane. The chief aim of the courses in history is the comprehension of present economic and political conditions as revealed through the study of their development. To this end the work is arranged in three courses, for successive years, including general history, American history and civics, and the history of commerce. Thus, the background is furnished, by the preliminary survey of general history, for the more intensive study of the principles of in- dustrial evolution treated in the fields of American history and the history of commerce. The courses aim to acquaint students with the best available sources, and to develop their power in handling material independently. Provision is made for close connection between this department and the related subjects of industrial geography and economics. u Geography. Mr. Gushing. During the first year the work in physiography aims to con- struct a broad basis for understanding commercial geography. The nature of climate and land forms and their influences on man are made the principal objects of study. Some regional geography is taught. Economic geography is taught the second year. It is re- garded as the meeting ground of geography and economics. The course is based upon the work in geography of the preceding year, in which is emphasized, more particularly, the study of those forces -in nature which are working on man and so influenc- ing his activities. An equal emphasis is now placed upon man's reaction to his environment, and those principles of economics are derived which help to explain the production, exchange, dis- tribution and consumption of goods. The laboratories of this course are : local industrial establishments, the freight house, yard and cars, local docks and freighters. Abundant concrete illustrative material is exhibited in the in- dustrial and commercial museum, which is one of the new fea- tures of the department. In it are shown the raw materials of commerce. Many business houses have contributed to this, so that the various stages of production to the finished products of commerce, in many lines, are exhibited. Pictures and stereo- scopic views help to clarify the subject. United States consular reports, census, statistical and other government reports, news- papers, market quotations, magazines and the modern texts, such as Eedway's and Chisholm's, are used as sources of facts, from which principles are derived and illustrated. An advanced course, entitled industrial geography, is offered for the third year. This is founded on observational work with the tanning and shoe industry of Salem and Peabody, and leads to the study of the history and organization of industries as influenced by geographic conditions. It concludes with an intensive study of the resources, industries, markets and trans- portation in the United States, and the industrial personality of nations. 45 Physics and Chemistry. Mr. Whitman. This course includes the more important principles of physics and chemistry, and aims to make the student familiar with many of the common scientific terms, chemical materials and opera- tions which are likely to be met in commercial work. The course consists chiefly of class-room talks, demonstrations, and discus- sions about the applications of physics and chemistry in com- mercial and industrial operations. Some individual laboratory work will be given. There will be opportunity to study applied physics and chemistry in their relation to local industries. A number of industrial plants will be visited by the class. Pedagogy. Mr. Pitman. Pedagogy is a prescribed subject for all students in the com- mercial department. In addition to the essential features of the regular elementary course it includes a consideration of many of the problems of the secondary school, and particular attention is given to the pedagogical aspects of commercial education. (See description of course in Pedagog} T , p. 25.) Teachers now in the service and other prospective students who have not pursued a course in psychology and who are in- tending to take a special course in this department should make a thorough study of James's Briefer Course in Psychology, Hal- leck's Psychology and Psychic Culture, or some other book of equal scope. The History of Commerce. Mr. Meredith. This course is designed to add to the general information of the student by giving a knowledge of the commerce of the past and showing its relation to the development of present and probable future conditions. The laboratory method of teaching this subject is used. Students are required to obtain their information from various sources, such as magazines, newspapers and recently published works. 46 In pursuing this course emphasis is placed upon the history and development of local industries, and students are required to make visits to business houses and manufacturing plants of various kinds. Each student is obliged to make an independent written study of some one of these local industries. Economics. Mr. Meredith. Economic phenomena are at present much more definite and numerous than in the early times, when communities were equipped for war rather than for industry. The aim of this course is to provide- the student with a thorough knowledge of the intricacies of the social system by which he is environed, and the best methods of interesting younger pupils in the practical problems of modern community life. The value of this course is also increased by a study of the application of economic prin- ciples to current civic problems and legislation concerning them. In this connection students are required to make an intensive study of some phase of social economics, and at the end of the course to present the results of their research in the form of a comprehensive thesis. An extensive outside reading course is being conducted as a part of this work. By means of a card designed for the pur- pose an accurate account of each student's reading is kept on file, together with her criticism of the work read. A suitable library, containing works relating to the subject of economics, is at the disposal of the students. Commercial Law. Mr. Meredith. The whole scheme of commercial activity is regulated and controlled by the laws of business, and the character and in- tegrity of business conduct are defined by these laws. The aim of this course is to give the student a knowledge of the essentials of commercial law, and to develop the best methods for . im- parting this knowledge to others. The work of the text-book is supplemented by real or hypothetical " cases," in which the law principles learned are applied. A library of commercial law text-books is at the disposal of the students. 47 Bookkeeping. Mr. Meredith. Bookkeeping is the most important and usually the most at- tractive study of the distinctively commercial group. It is the subject with which all the other subjects of this group are most closely correlated. The aim of the course is to give the student a thorough understanding of the principles of bookkeeping as well as of the various approved methods for teaching the same. Both class and individual methods of instruction are used. Business practice is also carried on as a part of the work of this course as well as a comprehensive study of the various business papers and forms. The advanced course in bookkeeping consists of the study of the theory of accounts and the fundamental principles of account- ing. It also includes a detailed study of the various modern text-books in bookkeeping and a comparison of the methods used in each. The methods of keeping the books of a modern bank and also those of some local industry are studied. An advanced business practice set is carried on by this de- partment in conjunction with the bookkeeping department of the Salem Commercial School. Students are made familiar with the most approved methods of filing business papers. Commercial Arithmetic. Mr. Meredith. Arithmetic occupies an important place in the curriculum of a commercial department. It is very closely correlated with bookkeeping and helps to interpret other general commercial subjects, such as commercial geography, transportation and finance. The aim of this course is to give the student an accurate knowledge of arithmetic in its application to business practice. The theory and practice of teaching it according to modern methods is also part of the work. Instruction and drill in the use of the adding machine are given in this course. 48 Shorthand. Miss Townsexd. The study of the principles of Benn Pitman shorthand com- prises the work of the first half of the course. Dictation practice begins very early, the aim being to obtain absolutely accurate work at a moderate rate of speed by the time the student com- pletes the text. This work is followed by a few weeks" drill for a high rate of speed. The professional side of the subject is. considered throughout the course, but it is emphasized in the senior year by the discussion of methods, the study of pedagogi- cal works on the subject of shorthand, by the examination and criticism of various text and drill books, by observation in the Salem Commercial School, and by observation and practice teaching in the Salem High School. The Gres'g system of shorthand mav be continued by those students who have had a reasonable amount of instruction in it elsewhere. Typewriting. Miss TOWNSEND. The first half of this course is devoted to acquiring proficiency in the touch method, the professional side of the subject being emphasized from the first by showing pupils how to start begin- ners in the study of typewriting. Care is taken that students form correct habits of position, touch, fingering and manipula- tion of the machine. Particular attention is given to the ar- rangement of material and to rapid transcription. The course includes practice in the use of the neostyle. the mimeograph, the letter press and similar office devices. Material in the form of correspondence, outlines, abstracts, programs, etc., furnished by the various departments of the school, affords a basis for the acquisition of experience and skill in this kind of work. Methods of teaching typewriting are discussed, and various text-books are examined, criticised and compared. Observation and practice teaching under supervision and criticism consti- tute an important part of the work of the third year. o o o 49 Penmanship. Mr. Doner. The aims, methods and matter of this course are stated on pages 38 and 39, except that in the commercial department a course of instruction suitable for high instead of elementary school pupils is presented during the senior year. THE LIBRARY AND READING ROOH. Miss Martin. The general library contains a collection of books now num- bering more than 5,300, including valuable works in all depart- ments. The American Library Association system of cata- loguing is employed, with a complete card index by authors and book titles. This is supplemented by a card system of refer- ences by topics, already containing several thousand cards. In addition to the general library books, there is a collection of about 5,500 reference and text books, also carefully catalogued, for use in connection with the various courses. In the reading room are filed the leading periodicals, both of general nature and of specific value in pedagogical study. LECTURES. Since the issue of last year's catalogue the teachers and stu- dents have had the privilege of listening to the following lec- tures and concerts : — Customs and Duties, . . . Hon. James 0. Lyford, Naval Officer of the Port of Boston. Annual concert, .... The Glee Club. Courses of Study in Commercial Frank B. Thompson, Head Master Schools. of the High School of Com- merce, Boston. Characteristics of Leading Sys- Edward F. Eldredge, Director of terns of Shorthand. the Secretarial Department, Simmons College. What the Business Man de- George P. Lord, Principal of the mands of his Employees. Salem Commercial School. Municipal Government, . . Hon. John M. Raymond. 50 Reading: Selections from the Book of Job. Town House Square, Salem, . Memorial Day address, Graduation address: The Train- ing of Our Teachers. The Teacher's Opportunity, Exercises in honor of the cen- tennial of the birth of Prof. Alpheus Crosby, the second principal of the school. Art in the Public Schools, Concert : String quartet from the New England Conserva- tory of Music. The Personality of the Teacher, Recital: Children's Songs, Reading: Othello, ■ . Violin recital, .... The East versus the West, Moral Education, Prof. John Duxbury, Manchester, . Eng. Sidney Perley, Esq. John A. Gilman, Commander Mas- sachusetts Department of the G. A. R. President William H. P. Faunce, Brown University. Dr. David Snedden, State Com- missioner of Education. Loyalty, Walter Sargent, University of Chicago. President Cheesman A. Herrick, Girard College. Victoria Sordoni. President Henry L. Southwick, Emerson College of Oratory. William L. Daley and Theresa E. Daley, New England Conserva- tory of Music. Kioyo S. Inui. Mrs. Ella Lyman Cabot, Member of the Massachusetts Board of Education. President Marion L. Burton, Smith College. THE MANAQEHENT OF THE SCHOOL. Students in a school for the professional training of teachers should be self-governing in the full sense of the term. Each student is allowed and is encouraged to exercise the largest degree of personal liberty consistent with the rights of others. The teachers aim to be friends and leaders, rather than gov- ernors and masters. They will not withhold advice, admonition 51 and reproof, if needed; but their work in such lines will be done with individuals, and in the most helpful and generous spirit. Those students who, after full and patient trial, are found unworthy of such consideration, are presumed to be unfit or unlikely to become successful teachers, and will be removed from the school. Others, also, who, by no fault of their own, but by the misfortune of conspicuous inaptitude, through physi- cal or mental deficiencies, are unfit for the work of teaching, will be advised to withdraw, and will not be graduated. Many matters pertaining to the general welfare of the school are referred for consideration to the school council. This is a representative body, consisting of the principal and two other members of the faculty, and one member chosen by each divi- sion of the senior and junior classes. Thus the students, through their representatives, have a voice in the management of the school, and also assume their share of the responsibility for its success. Expenses, Aid, Board, etc. Tuition is free to all residents of Massachusetts who declare their intention to teach in the schools of this Commonwealth. Students admitted from other States are required to pay a tuition fee of fifty dollars per year, of which sum one-half is due Sep- tember 7 and the other half February 1. Text-books and sup- plies are free, as in the public schools. Articles used in school work which students may desire to own will be furnished at cost. Students who come to Salem to board are advised to bring with them such text-books of recent date as they may own. To assist those students, residents of Massachusetts, who find it difficult to meet the expenses of the course, pecuniary aid is furnished by the State to a limited extent. Applications for this aid must be made in writing, to the principal, and must be accompanied by such evidence as shall satisfy him that the applicant needs assistance. This aid, however, is not furnished to residents of Salem, nor during the first half-year of attend- ance at the school. Through the generosity of members of the faculty and grad- uates of the school, several funds have been established, all of which, by vote of the Salem Normal School Association, are administered by the principal as loan funds. Students may 52 thus borrow reasonable sums of money with which to meet their expenses during their connection with the school, and payment may be made at their convenience, after they have secured posi- tions as teachers. Besides the Students' Benefit Fund are other funds, founded by graduates of the school as memorials to Prof. Alpheus Crosby, principal from 1857 to 1865; Dr. Daniel B. Hagar, principal from 1865 to 1895; Dr. Walter P. Beckwith, principal from 1895 to 1905; and to Dr. Elmer H. Capen, formerly chairman of the board of visitors. The total amount of money now available is about $2,000. The principal will gladly receive and credit to any of the above funds such contributions as grad- uates and friends of the school may be disposed to make. Fre- quently a little timely financial aid from this source may save to the profession an efficient teacher. The expense of board is moderate; two students rooming to- gether can usually find accommodations within easy distance of the school, including light and heat, at prices ranging upward from $4.50 each, per week. A list of places where board may be obtained is kept at the school, and reasonable aid will be given to students who are seeking boarding places. It is ad- visable to make inquiries some time before the beginning of the school year. A lunch counter is maintained in the building, from which is served at noon each school day a good variety of wholesome and attractive food, at very reasonable prices. Attendance and Conduct. 1. Students living at home, on finding themselves likely to be absent more than one day, are desired to make known the fact in writing. 2. Students who are withdrawing from school must return the books and other property of the school, and receive regular dismission. Those who fail to do so promptly must not expect at a later date any recommendation or endorsement from the teachers of the school. 3. Absences for the purpose of teaching or of acting as sub- stitutes for more than one day must be arranged in advance. In general, absence for this purpose during the first year of a student's course will not be regarded with favor. 53 4. Students must be present 'at the opening of school after any recess or vacation, and must remain until all are excused. 5. Students boarding in Salem must not make arrangements involving absence from any school exercise without previously obtaining permission. 6. Students boarding in this vicinity, away from their parents, whether over or under legal age, must keep the principal in- formed of their addresses. All boarding places are subject to the judgment of the principal. As the school has no dormitory, those who receive its students into their homes must, of necessity, assume responsibility for the conduct of the young women thus placed in their charge in the same measure as would be required of teachers in charge of a dormitory. They are therefore requested to report to the principal any impropriety of conduct on the part of students which ought to be known by him, or any behavior of theirs which would be considered unsuitable in a well-regulated dormi- tory. Employment for Graduates. The increase in the number of normal school graduates em- ployed in Massachusetts as teachers has been, especially during the past twenty years, very much greater proportionately than the increase in the whole number of teachers, but even at the present time they constitute but about sixty per cent, of all the teachers in the State, and the demand is annually greater than the supply; especially for the higher grammar grades there is a marked scarcity of strong candidates. Although the school does not undertake to guarantee positions to its students, it is a fact that graduates of any department are rarely without posi- tions three months after graduation. The principal takes pleasure in assisting them to obtain such positions as they are qualified to fill. To that end he is glad to correspond or to confer with school authorities. He also wishes to be kept in- formed as to the degree of success which has attended the efforts of former students. 54 Scholarships for Graduates. There are offered at Harvard University four scholarships, each of an annual value of one hundred fifty dollars, for the benefit of students in Harvard College who are graduates of any reputable normal school in the United States. Notices to School Officials. All interested persons, especially those connected in any way with educational work, are cordially invited to visit the school, to inspect the building and equipment, or to attend the exer- cises in its class rooms or practice schools at any time and without ceremony. During the summer vacation, some person qualified to give information regarding the school, its work and the conditions of admission will be at the building each forenoon, except Satur- day. Requests for catalogues are always promptly honored. Superintendents and other school officials are requested to send to the school copies of their reports, courses of study and other publications of common interest. The courtesy will be appreciated and reciprocated. Every person claiming to be a graduate of this school should be able to show either a diploma or a certificate of the fact of graduation. Since January 1, 1900, all" students who have left the school by reason of graduation, or otherwise in good stand- ing, possess a diploma, a certificate showing the completion of a year's work, or a certificate of honorable dismissal. The last- named paper is not to be understood as a recommendation of proficiency in scholarship or teaching ability. GENERAL INFORMATION. Historical Sketch. The State formal School at Salem was opened to students September 12, 1854. It was the fourth normal school established by the .State of Massachusetts. Its first building stood at the corner of Broad and Summer streets. This was enlarged and ♦ improved in 1860, and again in 1871. After twenty-five year? the accommodations proved inadequate to meet the increased demands made upon modern normal schools, and an appropria- 55 tion was made by the Legislature for a new building, which was first occupied by the school December 2, 1896. The site, build- ing and equipment represent an expenditure of $300,000; and it is believed that the Commonwealth here possesses a structure as complete and convenient as any of its kind in this country. The School Building The building is located in the southern part of the city, — a section devoted chiefly to residential purposes, — in a command- ing position at the junction of the electric car lines from Lynn and Marblehead. In the basement are the gymnasium, with its adjoining dress- ing room and shower baths, the industrial laboratory and the lunch room. The first floor is occupied by the practice school. The rooms are all large and well lighted, and, including the kindergarten, they are intended to accommodate 350 pupils. On the second floor is the assembly hall of the normal school. It is about 60 by 85 feet in size, and can accommodate 250 single desks and chairs. The remainder of this floor contains the principal's offices, the reception room, the library, and vari- ous recitation and work rooms. On the third floor are the science laboratories, the studios and the lecture room. Decorations. It is generally conceded that no building or schoolroom is finished or furnished which lacks beautiful and artistic dec- orations, not only because these objects are beautiful in them- selves, but because of the refining and educative value. There is a silent influence resulting from the companionship of good pictures or casts, elevating the thought, and creating a dislike for the common, ugly and inferior type of decoration so often seen. The school has many pictures and casts, the gifts of the students, the faculty and other friends of the school, and all these have been selected with great care and artistic judgment, so that the whole is harmonious. The Teachers and Students. The school during its history has had five principals and eighty-two assistant teachers. The development of the practice schools began in 1897, and with them thirty-nine persons have 56 been connected as teachers. Nineteen teachers are now required in the normal school and fifteen in the practice schools. About six thousand students have attended the school. The proportion of those who complete the course has been increasing steadily in recent years. The Location and Attractions of Salem. No place in northeastern Massachusetts is more easily accessi- ble than Salem. It is on the main line of the eastern division of the Boston & Maine Eailroad system, connecting with the Saugus branch at I/ynn. A branch road to "Wakefield Junction connects the city with the western division. There is direct communication with Lowell, Lawrence, Haverhill, Eock- port and Marblehead. Trains are frequent and convenient. Salem is also the center of an extensive network of electric railways. Students coming daily to Salem on Boston & Maine trains can obtain season tickets at greatly reduced rates. Trains on the Marblehead branch stop at Loring Avenue, on signal, and many students find it more convenient to purchase their season tickets to that station. Salem is the center of many interesting historical associations, and within easy reach are the scenes of more important and stirring events than can be found in any other equal area of our country. The scenery, both of seashore and country in the neighborhood, is exceedingly attractive. There are many libra- ries, besides the free public library, and curious and instructive collections belonging to various literary and antiquarian organ- izations, to which access may be obtained at a slight expense. Lectures are frequent and inexpensive. The churches of the city represent all the religious denominations that are common in New England. O I REGISTER OF STUDENTS. 1910=1911. Graduates. — Class XCVI. — June 21, 1910. Elementary Course. Barentzen, Olive Mary, Barnes, Charlotte, Blood, Marion Helena, Boycl, Grace Gladys, . Burnham, Alice Stacy, Butterfielcl, Marion Ascenath, Cahill, Elizabeth Cecelia, . Carroll, Margaret Mary, . Corson, Murle Augusta, Cotter, Chester, . Coyne, Sara Stanislaus, . Dempsey, Mary Louise, Donovan, Mary Frances, . Edgecomb, Elva Dawn, FitzHugh, Lena Grayson, . Slanders, Leona, . . Fowler, Maude Anna, Fox, Agnes Gertrude, Gardner, Laura Alston, Gardner, Marion Warren, Gilmore, Mary Elizabeth, . Harney, Margaret Laurentia, Harrington, Alida Hilton, . Healy, Alice Jeanette, Houghton, Lucy Forbush, . Hutchins, Susie Blanche, . Jones, Agnes Marian, Keating, Mary Veronica, . Kelley, Florence Gardelena, King, Mabel Disa, Kinnear, Margaret Alexander Watson, Laskey, Adelaide Mary, Franklin Park. Chelsea. Derry, N. H. Beverly. Beverly. Maiden. Dan vers. Cambridge. Salem. Rowley. Somerville. Peabody. Salem. Salem. Amesbury. Maiden. Beverly. Salem. Everett. Dan vers. Peabody. Lynn. Maiden. Chelsea. North Andover. Union, N. H. Chelsea. Salem. Wakefield. Bradford. Salem. Maiden. 58 Lord, Marian Dean, . Loring, Marion Alice, Maguire, Marion, Merritt, Ruth Breed, . Moran, Mabel May, . Mulligan, Helen Marie, Murphy, Gertrude Agatha, Nelson, Elizabeth Kristina Louise, Newcomb, Marion Faustina, O'Neill, Edna Gertrude, . O'Neil, Loretto Magdalen, . O'Connor, Eleanor Spelman, Perley, Grace Mildred, Perry, Dorothy, . Pierce, Lillian Mae, Powell, May Veronica, Pulsifer, Helen Marks, Ricles, Edith Bella, . Riley, Mary Elouise, . Robertson, Elizabeth Harriet, Shortell, Mary Beatrice, . Stack, Mary Lillian, . Stearns, Helen Isabelle, . Swanson, Fanny Amelia, . Thurston, Lura, . Tucker, Ruth Elizabeth, Walker, Eleanor Elizabeth, Ward, Gertrude Beatrice, . Welch, Irene Marie, . Weston, Martha Mary, Wildes, Mary Aloysia, Woods, Esther Jane, . Harrington, Me. Groveland. Salem. Danvers. Lynn. Salem. Cambridge. Beverly. Swampscott. Lynn. Maiden. Cambridge. East B oxford. Revere. Lynn. Maiden. Salem. Roxbury. Salem. Beverly. Salem. Andover. West Somerville. Pigeon Cove. .Rockport. North Reading. Lynn. Beachmont. Lynn. Essex. Lynn. Newburyport. Commercial Course. Bruce, Helen, .... . Rockport. Car dwell, Nelson Henry, . Salem. Daverin, Maude Burbank, . Dalton. Davis, Augusta Louise, Amesbury Day, Mary Ellen, Salem. Fitzgerald, Edwin a Frances, Revere. Giles, Martelle Elsie, Salem. 59 Gould, Mary Gertrude, Healy, Agnes Leona, . Hickey, Florence Augusta, Ivers, Mabel Florence, Keith, Nelly Doris, . Kennedy, Abbie Jones, Martin, John Edward, Mulligan, Nellie Elizabeth, Oliver, Warren Walton, . Pearson, Signe Hilda, Roche, Anna Theodora, Slade, Madeleine Louise, . Standley, Ethel Frances, . Wilbur, Lawrence Winton, Dan vers. Danvers. Wakefield. Salem. Salem. Danvers. West Peabody. Salem. Wakefield. Lynn. Salem. Danvers. Manchester. North Raynham. Certificates for One Year's Work. Elementary Course. Coburn, Elizabeth Vienna, Gavin, Agnes Mary, . Irving, Eva Christena, Philbrook, Susan, Warner, Annie Mabelle, Wakefield. Roxbury. Somerville. Lynn. Salem. Commercial Course. Bates, Alice Cecil, Henry, Margaret Lee, Hogan, Marie Gertrude, . Howard, Pauline Sumner, . Lewis, Bertha, . Lyon, Marguerite Helen, . MacDow, George Wilson, . Peabody, Mabel Florence, . Power, Alice Helena Marie, Weaver, Frances Edna, Bradford. Norwalk, Conn. Dorchester. Mattapan. Holliston. Dorchester. Beachmont. Danvers. Dorchester. Mattapan. Students in the Elementary Course. Senior Class. Albert, Rose, Barteau, Clara Irene, . Burnham, Mary Alice, Beadle, Helen Josephine, Maiden. Amesbury. Essex. Groveland. 60 Cotton, Edith Frances, Cress} 7 , Ruth Augusta, Cronin, Sybil Louise Mary Crosby, Mildred Parker, Crowley, Madeline Usher, Cur ley, Grace Francis, Cushing, Mary Esther, Danner, Bertha Hertgen, Decatur, Rena Althea, Dickinson, Helena Minnie, Doyle, Alberta Ruth, . Eames, Hilda Weston, Edmands, Mary Luella, FitzGerald, Mary Frances, Granfield, Susie Frances, Grant, Grace Marguerite, Greene, Agnes Gertrude, 1 Griffin, Mary Elizabeth, Hall, Margaret "Sturges, 1 Harlih, Gertrude Alice, Harrigan, Frances Agnes, Harris, Daisy, . Hickey, Emma May, . Hill, Mabel Louise, . Hinkley, Fannie Crowell, Howard, Ethelyn Adams, Hoyle, Lillian Mary, . Hunter, Ethel Annas, Israelite, Anna Bessie, Jenkins, Lena, . Johnson, Helen Louise, Kline, Elizabeth Margaret, Klippel, Laura Estelle, Lambert, Georgia Dorothy Lang, Florence Ardell, Lord, Florence Elliot, Macdonald, Josephine Elsie, Haddock, Ruth Valerie, Magraw, Maria Pearl, McPhetres, Eva Lucretia, Maiden. Beverly. Cambridge. Groveland. Danvers. Marblehead. Beverly. Maiden. West Peabody Danvers. Reading. North Reading Saugus. Cambridge, Reading. Chelsea. Cambridge. Peabody. Cambridge. Cambridge. Danvers. Saugus. Beverly. Georgetown. Beverly. Maiden. Everett. Maiden. Chelsea. Ipswich. Lynn. Cambridge. Salem. Lynn. v Bradford. Peabody. Somerville. Amesbury. Lynn. Lynn. 1 Left before the end of the first half year. 61 MeSwiney, Mary Cecilia, Morrissey, Mary Jane, Myers, Ruth Ethel, . Nelson, Maude Wellington Norton, Marjorie, Parsons, Helen Gaffney, Peachey, Florence Bailey, Perley, Charlotte, Peterson, Marion Crosmai Phillips, Edith Elizabeth, Poor, Ethel Mirriam, Pratt, Eva Louise, Prescott, Dorothy Nutting Quinn, Alice Irene, . Ramhofer, Lena Louise, Reeve, Alice Louise, . Reiman, Elsie May, . Reynolds, Abbie Elizabeth Riley, Marguerite Rose, Roche, Elizabeth Constance, Scott, Laura Amelia, . Shannon, Mabel Elizabeth Small, Esther Louise, Smith, Lulu Belle, . . Smith, Rose Catherine, Solomon, Genorie Palmer, Spofford, Celia May, . Spofford, Lelia Frances, Swanson, Gerda Florence, Taylor, Sadie Mildred, Tucker, Mabel Hammond, Walsh, Katharine Frances, Whalen, Abbie Elizabeth, Wildes, Mildred Fern, Chelsea. North Andover. Lynn. Salem. Chelsea. Pigeon Cove. Lynn. Boxford. Chelsea. Lynn. Lynn. Maiden. Haverhill. Swampscott. Cambridge. Salem. Newburyport. Lynn. Melrose. Salem. Melrose. Lynn. Gloucester. North Andover. Somerville. Maiden. Melrose Highlands. Melrose Highlands. Pigeon Cove. Everett. Marblehead. Somerville. Amesbury. South Hamilton. Students in Second Year of Three-years Course. Burnham, Gladys Frances, Connery, Anna Laura, Cook, Alice Marguerite, Doran, Phoebe Martha Hughes, Furfey, Josephine Esther, . Topsfield. Lynn. Danvers. Reading. Cambridge. 62 Hale, Ruth Elizabeth, Stoneham. Herlihy, Catherine Mary, . North Cambridge. Ingham, Mabel Russell, Somerville. Leonard, Alice Virginia, . Amesbury. McCauley, Alice Katherine, Salem. Merrill, Lillian Dimond, . Lynn. Merrow, Helen, . . Salem. Mullin, Frances Marie, Salem. Norcross, Alice Almira, Melrose. Perkins, Susan Stevens, Everett. Ruth, Jennie Viola, 1 . Gloucester. Sargent, Helen Marion, Groveland. Scully,- Katherine Veronica, Chelsea. Simonds, Margaret Story, . Beverly. Striley, Amy Marguerite, . Danvers. Sumner, Grace Ria, . Lynn. Tweeddale, Ruth Barbour, . Lynn. Whitman, Mary Eva, Beverly. Special Students, One-year Course. Archer, Mary E., Salem. Cahill, Elizabeth Cecelia, . Danvers. Eastman, Magna Dean, . Framingham. French, Carrie Russell, Brookfield. Titcomb, Grace, .... . Maiden. Junior Class. Baker, Emma May, West Somerville. Beale, Helene Lambert, West Medf ord. Bogrette, Jane Frances, Medford. Bowler, Claire Ann, . Somerville. Bowler, Ruth Isabel, . Somerville. Burns, Agnes Ellen Olive, . Newbury. Cahoon, Margaret Cecilia, . Gloucester. Campbell, Clara Louise, . North Reading. Chamberlin, Alice Maude, . Somerville. Chapman, Myrtie Hoag, Marblehead. Chase, Lucinda Norma, Seabrook, N. H. Collins, Eva Hadley, . Marblehead. Collins, James Samuel, Salem. 1 Left before the end of the first half year. 63 Collins, Nora Marie, . . Beachmont. Conners, Charlotte Newton, Lynn. Curry, Catherine Teresa, . Lynn. Daley, Theresa Edna, . Maiden. Davis, Claire Veronica, Salem. Deering, Mary Katherine, . Beverly. DeLory, Evelyn Whitney, . Beverly. Denton, Maude Holt, . Danvers. Dodd, Sadie Frances, . Beverly. Dugmore, Florence Mabel, . Medford. Dunham, Florence Helen, . Revere. Dwyer, Mary Imelda, Salem. Edmunds, Mary Louise, . . Medford. Ellis, Bertha Louise, . Swampscott. Fahey, Eleanore Louise, . Lynn. Fairchild, Bertha Irene, Lynn. Farnham, Dorothy Woodbridge, . Maiden. Fegan, Mildred Ayers, Beverly. Fitzgerald, Jetta Louise, . Revere. Fisher, Ethel Stoekwell, . Lynn. Flagg, Pauline, Swampscott. Flaherty, May Lorraine Regina, 1 Somerville. Galvin, Bertha Katherine, . Lynn. Geary, Mary Louise, . . Maiden. George, Ida May, . Maiden. Giddings, Carrie Anna, Beverly. Gilmore, Joseph Michael, . Peabody. Graham, Mary Pauline. Lynn. Griffiths, Alice Elizabeth, . Somerville. Halliday, Mary Mildred, . . . Lynn. Harrold, Beulah Christine, Marblehead. Hayes, Elizabeth Ruth, 1 Somerville. Hickey, Ruth Elizabeth, . . Wakefield. Hill, Hortense Frances, . Lynn. Hilliard, Mildred Jewell, . East Kingston, N. H. Hobbs, Gwendolyn Day, . Danvers. Hodgkins, Edith Jane, . Medford. Hodsdon, Helene Charles, . . Fryeburg, Me. Holder, Lillian, 1 .... . Lynn. Hughes, Viola Myrtle, Salem. Hunt, Caroline Lois, . Somerville. i Left before the end of the first half year. 64 Usley, Sarah Elizabeth, Jackson, May Serlena, James, Vivian Z., Johnson, Anna Nathalie, . Johnson, Pemal Sophronia, Keene, Leone Millicent, Kenneally, Anne Elizabeth, Kenny, Mary Agnes, . Killen, Mildred Anna, Killion, Anna Mary, . King, Hazel Frances, 1 Knight, Caroline Marion, . Levy, Frances Agnes, ' Loring, Eva Mildred, . MacAdams, Mary Teresa Hilda MaeCarthy, Ruth, MacGregor, Marion Gertrude, Mackin, Gertrude Elizabeth, Maguire, Mary Anne, Mahoney, Katherine Agnes, Manning, Mary Helena, . Martin, Anna Gertrude, . McCarthy, Alice Louise, . McCoy, Margaret Annette, McDonald, Helen Gertrude, McLaughlin, Lucelia Agnes, Millea, Grace D'Arcy, Milier, Mary Ellen, . Mulally, Anna Clementine, Murray, Henrietta, . Murphy, Madeline Bernadine, Nichols, Maude Ethel, O'Neil, Grace Ruth, . Orne, Madeline, . Patch, Mary Louise, . Perry, Emma Andrews, Pitman, Ernest Clayton, . Porter, Bertha Idella, Putnam, Marion, Ramsey. Florence Collette, Samuel, Rose, 1 . Newburj'. Lynn. Hathorne. Somerville. Nahant. Maiden. Salem. Maiden. Lynn. Maiden. Salem. Middleton. Chelsea. Groveland. Lynn. Maiden. Lynnfield. Cambridge. Cambridge. North Cambridge. Cambridge. West Peabody. Lynn. Arlington. Methuen. Everett. Danvers. Somerville. Danvers. Beverly. Everett. Maiden. Somerville. Marblehead. Wenham. Somerville. Danvers. Gloucester. Beverly. Cambridge. Winthrop. 1 Left before the end of the first half year. 65 Seaton, Mildred, Sharkey, Annie Gertrude, . Sheafe, Ruth Yiola, . Smith, Amy Francena, Smith, Barbara Eloise, 1 Stetson, Estelle Frances, . Stetson, Elizabeth Jewett, . Strong, William H., 1 . Strout, Margaret Dodge, . Surrette, Mary Jane Victoria, Thornton, Helen Ellis, Tompkins, Emeline Frances, Tynes, Lillian May, . Watkins, Winifred Belle, . Welch, Alice Gertrude, Willey, Mildred Anna, Gloucester. Medford. Amesbury. North Andover. Cambridge. Medford. Georgetown. East Boston. Swampscott. Wilmington. Saugus. . Danvers. North Cambridge. Wakefield. Lynn. Sau°Tis. Students in the Commercial Course. Senior Class. Flaherty, Mary Aloysie, Hayward, Beth Sylvia, Millea, Alice Marie, . Pedersen, Dora Christina, Pedersen, Jennie Marie, de Sloovere, Mary Constance, Turbett, Alice Rose, . Salem. South Easton. Danvers. Somerville. Somerville. Webster. Salem. Students in Second Year of Three-years Course. Brophy, Elnora Kathleen, . . . -. Gloucester. Clark, Anna Keenan, .... Marblehead. HinckclifTe, Eva Mary, .... Stoneham. Wiggin, Lelia May, Danvers. Special Students, One-year Course. Oliver, Warren Walton, .... Wakefield Smith, Edith Whitney, . Sullivan, Arthur J., . . . . . Salem. Gorham, Me. 1 Left before the end of the first half year. 66 Special Students, Two- years Course. Davis, Nina Amanda, Dow, Ethel Helen, Johnson, Olive Florence, Sanford, Pearle Aurilla, Auburn, Me. Newton. Orange. Marlborough. Junior Class. Brown, Eliza Florence, Curtis, Madolin, Fitch, Marion Abbie, Foley, William Lawrence, Gale, Gladys Marie, 1 . Jenkins, Mildred, 1 Levy, Mary Genevieve, Loges, Edith May, . McGlew, John James, Jr., Peabody, Helen Gertrude, 1 Powell, Charlotte Louise, Schribman, Rena, 1 Thomas, Winnifred Adelaide, Whitney, Rosalba, Marblehead. Salem. Sterling Junction. Gloucester. Marblehead. Andover. Danvers. Cambridge. Newburyport. Danvers. Maiden. Salem. Cambridge. Brookline. Summary. Students of the elementary course, . Special students, elementary course, . Students of the commercial course, . Special students, commercial course, . 212 5 25 7 Whole number of students from opening of school, Whole number of graduates, .... Number of certificates for one year's work, 249 5,948 3,147 92 J Left before the end of the first half year. 67 REQUIREMENTS FOR ADMISSION. Applicants for admission to the school must comply with the following requirements : — For final examinations, that is, for admission in September of the year in which the application is made : — 1. A certificate of graduation from high school or a certificate for admission without examination in one or more subjects. 1 2. A certificate of health from a physician. 3. A written application for admission. 1 4. An oral examination in reading, at the school. 5. A personal interview with the principal, at the school. 2 For preliminary' examinations, that is, for admission not earlier than September of the year following that in which appli- cation is made : — 1. A certificate from the principal of the high school that the candidate is prepared to take certain examinations. 1 2. A written application for admission. 1 3. A personal interview with the principal, at the school. 2 1 These must be made out on the printed forms provided by\the school. 2 No candidate will be admitted who has not met this requirement.